Below is an extract from the ‘Annals’ of Tacitus (56-117), Roman historian and Senator.
It describes the battle and final defeat in 47 AD of the Silures by the Roman Army under Publius Ostorius Scapula (successor to Aulus Plautius).
The Silures were led by the inspirational Caractacus and gave the Romans a good run for their money.
There is some debate over the location of Caractacus’s final battle (paragraph 3),
but I am convinced the battle took place in the Forest of Dean at a place called Noose (present-day Awre) on the banks of the River Severn.
This extract also includes Caractacus’s legendary speech to the Roman Emperor Claudius Nero Germanicus (b. 10 BC, d. 54 AD; emperor, 41-54 AD)
in the Roman Senate.
Edward Hunt 2013
Caractacus and the Romans
The Annals of Tacitus
The army then marched against the Silures, a naturally fierce people and now full of confidence in the might of Caractacus,
who by many an indecisive and many a successful battle had raised himself far above all the other generals of the Britons.
Inferior in military strength, but deriving an advantage from the deceptiveness of the country,
he at once shifted the war by a stratagem into the territory of the Ordovices, where, joined by all who dreaded peace with us,
he resolved on a final struggle.
He selected a position for the engagement in which advance and retreat alike would be difficult for our men and comparatively
easy for his own, and then on some lofty hills, wherever their sides could be approached by a gentle slope,
he piled up stones to serve as a rampart. A river too of varying depth was in his front,
and his armed bands were drawn up before his defences.
Then too the chieftains of the several tribes went from rank to rank,
encouraging and confirming the spirit of their men by making light of their fears,
kindling their hopes, and by every other warlike incitement.
As for Caractacus, he flew hither and thither, protesting that that day and that battle would be the beginning of the recovery of their freedom,
or of everlasting bondage.
He appealed, by name, to their forefathers who had driven back the dictator Caesar,
by whose valour they were free from the Roman axe and tribute, and still preserved inviolate the persons of their wives and of their children.
While he was thus speaking, the host shouted applause; every warrior bound himself by his national oath not to shrink from weapons or wounds.
Such enthusiasm confounded the Roman general.
The river too in his face, the rampart they had added to it, the frowning hilltops, the stern resistance and masses of fighting men everywhere apparent,
But his soldiers insisted on battle, exclaiming that valour could overcome all things;
and the prefects and tribunes, with similar language, stimulated the ardour of the troops.
Ostorius having ascertained by a survey the inaccessible and the assailable points of the position,
led on his furious men, and crossed the river without difficulty.
When he reached the barrier, as long as it was a fight with missiles, the wounds and the slaughter fell chiefly on our soldiers;
but when he had formed the military testudo, and the rude, ill-compacted fence of stones was torn down,
and it was an equal hand-to-hand engagement, the barbarians retired to the heights. Yet even there,
both light and heavy-armed soldiers rushed to the attack; the first harassed the foe with missiles,
while the latter closed with them, and the opposing ranks of the Britons were broken,
destitute as they were of the defence of breast-plates or helmets.
When they faced the auxiliaries, they were felled by the swords and javelins of our legionaries;
if they wheeled round, they were again met by the sabres and spears of the auxiliaries.
It was a glorious victory; the wife and daughter of Caractacus were captured, and his brothers too were admitted to surrender.
There is seldom safety for the unfortunate, and Caractacus, seeking the protection of Cartismandua,
queen of the Brigantes, was put in chains and delivered up to the conquerors,
nine years after the beginning of the war in Britain.
His fame had spread thence, and travelled to the neighbouring islands and provinces,
and was actually celebrated in Italy.
All were eager to see the great man, who for so many years had defied our power.
Even at Rome the name of Caractacus was no obscure one;
and the emperor, while he exalted his own glory, enhanced the renown of the vanquished.
The people were summoned as to a grand spectacle; the praetorian cohorts were drawn up under arms in the plain in front of their camp;
then came a procession of the royal vassals, and the ornaments and neck-chains and the spoils which the king had won in wars with other tribes, were displayed.
Next were to be seen his brothers, his wife and daughter; last of all, Caractacus himself.
All the rest stooped in their fear to abject supplication; not so the king, who neither by humble look nor speech sought compassion.
When he was set before the emperor's tribunal, he spoke as follows:
"Had my moderation in prosperity been equal to my noble birth and fortune,
I should have entered this city as your friend rather than as your captive;
and you would not have disdained to receive, under a treaty of peace,
a king descended from illustrious ancestors and ruling many nations.
My present lot is as glorious to you as it is degrading to myself.
I had men and horses, arms and wealth.
What wonder if I parted with them reluctantly?
If you Romans choose to lord it over the world, does it follow that the world is to accept slavery?
Were I to have been at once delivered up as a prisoner, neither my fall nor your triumph would have become famous.
My punishment would be followed by oblivion, whereas, if you save my life, I shall be an everlasting memorial of your clemency."
Upon this the emperor granted pardon to Caractacus, to his wife, and to his brothers.
Released from their bonds, they did homage also to Agrippina who sat near, conspicuous on another throne, in the same language of praise and gratitude.
It was indeed a novelty, quite alien to ancient manners, for a woman to sit in front of Roman standards.
In fact, Agrippina boasted that she was herself a partner in the empire which her ancestors had won.
The Senate was then assembled, and speeches were delivered full of pompous eulogy on the capture of Caractacus.
It was as glorious, they said, as the display of Syphax by Scipio, or of Perses by Lucius Paulus,
or indeed of any captive prince by any of our generals to the people of Rome.
Triumphal distinctions were voted to Ostorius, who thus far had been successful, but soon afterwards met with reverses;
either because, when Caractacus was out of the way, our discipline was relaxed under an impression that the war was ended,
or because the enemy, out of compassion for so great a king, was more ardent in his thirst for vengeance.
Instantly they rushed from all parts on the camp-prefect, and legionary cohorts left to establish fortified positions among the Silures,
and had not speedy succour arrived from towns and fortresses in the neighbourhood, our forces would then have been totally destroyed.
Even as it was, the camp-prefect, with eight centurions, and the bravest of the soldiers, were slain; and shortly afterwards,
a foraging party of our men, with some cavalry squadrons sent to their support, was utterly routed.
The text above is from:
Translated by: Alfred Church and William Brodribb